Year 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2018
Wave 1 2 3 4 5 6 CheckPoint 7 8
Age 3-19 months 2-3 years 4-5 years 6-7 years 8-9 years 10-11 years 11-12 years 12-13 years 14-15 years
Biomarker analysis
(urine, albumin and creatinine,
albumin-to-creatinine ratio) 1 2
Biomarker analysis
(plasma, high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein – hsCRP) 3
Metabolic profile
(serum, Nightingale 2017 panel) 4
Metabolic profile
(plasma, hydrosoluble vitamins,
lipid-soluble vitamins, one-carbon metabolites)
Genome-wide SNP genotyping 5 X
Telomere length 6 X


1 Albumin and creatinine were quantified in urine to assess for albuminuria. A Cobas Integra® 400 plus analyzer, determining albumin using an immunoturbimetric assay (ALBT2 kit, Test ID 0-171, Roche Diagnostics, Germany), and creatinine using the enzymatic colorimetric method (Creatinine plus version2 CREP2U kit, Test ID 0-512, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Laboratory work undertaken at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute (Melbourne, Australia) in 2016
2 Female participants were asked their menstruation status on the day of testing
3 hsCRP was measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS)
4 The Nightingale® Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics platform was used to quantify 288 metabolic biomarkers from 0.35mL of serum using the 2017 version quantification of Nightingale’s algorithm ( Key variables include total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total triglycerides, glucose, glycoprotein acetyls, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B (apoB)
5 The Illumina Infinium Global Screening Array v2.0 was used to perform genome-wide genotyping
6 Telomere length, related to cellular ageing, is expressed as a ratio of telomere repeat length to copy number of a single copy gene. Genomic DNA was extracted from a single 0.5ml whole blood aliquot or single clot aliquot (where whole blood was not available) per participant, using a QIAcube workstation and QIAamp DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen) according to the kit protocol. Relative telomere length was assessed using quantitative PCR (Roche LightCycler 480).


A = Administration report abstraction
C = Index child report (reporting on others)
L = Linkage (to other databases)
M = Medical records data abstraction
O = Observation/direct assessment
N = Nurse report
P = Parent/primary caregiver report
Pe = Peer report
S = Self report
T = Teacher report
X = Undefined
X BF = Pertaining to biological father
X BM = Pertaining to biological mother
C = Pertaining to index child
X F = Pertaining to father
X Fam = Pertaining to family
X G = Pertaining to grandparent(s)
X M = Pertaining to mother
X P = Pertaining to parent(s)
X Pa = Pertaining to partner
X Pe = Pertaining to peers
X Pr = Pertaining to primary caregiver
X Si = Pertaining to sibling(s)