Year 2012 2012 2012 – 2013 2013 2014
Wave W1 N/A W2 W3 W4
Time point Baseline/screening Intervention 6 months 12 months 24 months
Group Whole cohort RCT RCT RCT Whole cohort
# 1802 452 Whole cohort: 1269 (RCT: 397)
Prosocial behaviour P:SDQ P:SDQ P:SDQ P:SDQ
Quality of life 1 P:PedsQL-4.0 P:PedsQL-4.0
S:PedsQL-4.0 C
S:PedsQL-4.0 C
S:PedsQL-4.0 C
Demonstrates grit T:GRIT 2 T:GRIT 2 T:GRIT 2 (RCT only)

Featured measurements

GRIT: The Grit scale
PedsQL-4.0: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory – 4.0 Generic Core Scales
SDQ: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire


1 Age appropriate (5-7y or 8-12y) PedsQL versions were used.
2 The Grit Scale was devised for adult usage and was modified for children by the Memory Maestros team with permission from the author.


A = Administration report abstraction
C = Index child report (reporting on others)
L = Linkage (to other databases)
M = Medical records data abstraction
O = Observation/direct assessment
N = Nurse report
P = Parent/primary caregiver report
Pe = Peer report
S = Self report
T = Teacher report
X = Undefined
X BF = Pertaining to biological father
X BM = Pertaining to biological mother
C = Pertaining to index child
X F = Pertaining to father
X Fam = Pertaining to family
X G = Pertaining to grandparent(s)
X M = Pertaining to mother
X P = Pertaining to parent(s)
X Pa = Pertaining to partner
X Pe = Pertaining to peers
X Pr = Pertaining to primary caregiver
X Si = Pertaining to sibling(s)