The HealthNuts study of 5,300 children is the world’s first comprehensive population-based study of food allergy with an objective measurement of true food allergy. The study will enable researchers to better understand the natural history of allergic disorders including food allergy, asthma, eczema and hay fever and the risk factors for developing these conditions in the first six years of life. The study will have important implications for clinical guidelines and public health policy.

Participants who were food allergic at wave 1 food challenge or who indicated the presence of new food allergy symptoms since wave 1 were invited to participate in the clinical sub-sample, which included food challenge assessments.

In the below tables:
(a) – data collected for whole sample
(b) – additional data collected for clinic/food challenge subsample

Study Summary
Study name HealthNuts
Study abbreviation HealthNuts
Current principal investigator/s Rachel Peters
Primary Institution/s Murdoch Children’s Research Institute - MCRI
Collaborating Institution/s The Royal Children’s Hospital - RCH
The University of Melbourne - UoM
Major funding source/s National Health and Medical Research Council - NHMRC
IIhan Food Allergy Foundation
Australian Egg Corporation Pty.
US Department of Defense
Study website
Key reference for study Osborne, N.J., Koplin, J.J., Martin, P.E., Gurrin, L.C., Thiele, L., Tang, M.L., Ponsonby, A-L., Dharmage, S.C. and Allen, K.J., for HealthNuts Study Investigators. (2010). The HealthNuts population-based study of paediatric food allergy: validity, safety and acceptability. Clin Exp Allergy, 40(10): 1516-22
Study focus

A comprehensive population-based study of food allergy with an objective measurement of true food allergy, to better understand the natural history of, and risk factors for, allergic disorders.


Sampling frame

12-month-old infants presenting for routine scheduled vaccination at local government-led immunisation clinics across Melbourne, Australia.


Primary study type Longitudinal cohort
Primary participant (at recruitment) Index child
Year commenced



Is this study ongoing? Yes - the study is ongoing
Ongoing recruitment? No
Sample size (N)



Survey data available? Yes
Imaging data available? No
Linkage to administrative dataset/s? Yes, linkage to (at least one) administrative dataset completed
Biosamples available? Yes
Are data available to others outside study team, with appropriate safeguards and structures in line with the cohort’s ethics and governance processes? Yes
Are there any costs associated with data/sample access for approved requests? There are usually no costs associated with access
Broadest type of participant consent available Extended consent (can be used for future ethically approved research related to this project)


Currell A, Koplin JJ, Lowe AJ, Perrett KP, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Dharmage SC, Peters RL. (2022). Mode of Birth Is Not Associated With Food Allergy Risk in Infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 10(8), 2135 - 2143.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.03.031

Dang TD, Peters R, Neeland MR, Brettig T, Green H, McWilliam V, Tang MLK, Dharmage S, Ponsonby A-L, Koplin J, Perrett KP, HealthNuts Investigators . (2022). Ana o 3 sIgE testing increases the accuracy of cashew allergy diagnosis using a two-step model. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 33(1), e13705. DOI: 10.1111/pai.13705

Hua X, Dalziel K, Brettig T, Dharmage SC, Lowe A, Perrett KP, Peters RL, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Koplin J. (2022). Out-of-hospital health care costs of childhood food allergy in Australia: A population-based longitudinal study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 33(11), e13883. DOI: 10.1111/pai.13883

Idrose NS, Lodge CJ, Peters RL, Douglass JA, Koplin JJ, Lowe AJ, Perrett KP, Tang MLK, Newbigin EJ, Abramson MJ, Erbas B, Vicendese D, Dharmage SC. (2022). The role of short-term grass pollen exposure in food skin-prick test reactivity, food allergy, and eczema flares in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 33(10), e13862. DOI: 10.1111/pai.13862

Idrose NS, Vicendese D, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Douglass JA, Walters EH, Perret JL, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Newbigin EJ, Erbas B, Lodge CJ, Dharmage SC. (2022). Children With Food Allergy Are at Risk of Lower Lung Function on High-Pollen Days. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 10(8), 2144 - 2153.e10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.03.022

Koplin J, Soriano V, Netting M, Peters R. (2022). Infant feeding patterns before and after changes to food allergy prevention guidelines in Australia. Med J Aust, 217(4), 210 - 211. DOI: 10.5694/mja2.51627

Peters RL, Guarnieri I, Tang MLK, Lowe AJ, Dharmage SC, Perrett KP, Gurrin LC, Koplin JJ. (2022). The natural history of peanut and egg allergy in children up to age 6 years in the HealthNuts population-based longitudinal study. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 150(3), 657 - 665.e13. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.04.008

Peters RL, Sutherland D, Dharmage SC, Lowe AJ, Perrett KP, Tang MLK, Lycett K, Knibbs LD, Koplin JJ, Mavoa S. (2022). The association between environmental greenness and the risk of food allergy: A population-based study in Melbourne, Australia. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 33(2), e13749. DOI: 10.1111/pai.13749

Soriano VX, Peters RL, Moreno-Betancur M, Ponsonby A-L, Gell G, Odoi A, Perrett KP, Tang MLK, Gurrin LC, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Koplin JJ. (2022). Association Between Earlier Introduction of Peanut and Prevalence of Peanut Allergy in Infants in Australia. JAMA, 328(1), 48 - 56. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2022.9224

Turner PJ, Gretzinger M, Patel N, Brough HA, Chinthrajah RS, Ebisawa M, Elizur A, Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Purington N, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Saf S, Sampson HA, Westerhout J, Blom WM, Baumert JL, Houben GF, Remington BC. (2022). Updated threshold dose-distribution data for sesame. Allergy, 77(10), 3124 - 3162. DOI: 10.1111/all.15364


Cassim R, Dharmage SC, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Allen KJ, Tang MLK, Lowe AJ, Olds TS, Fraysse F, Milanzi E, Russell MA, HealthNuts Investigators . (2021). Are young children with asthma more likely to be less physically active? Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 32(2), 288 - 294. DOI: 10.1111/pai.13383

Neeland MR, Andorf S, Dang TD, McWilliam VL, Perrett KP, Koplin JJ, Saffery R. (2021). Altered immune cell profiles and impaired CD4 T-cell activation in single and multi-food allergic adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy, 51(5), 674 - 684. DOI: 10.1111/cea.13857

Oakley J, Peters RL, Wake M, Grobler AC, Kerr JA, Lycett K, Cassim R, Russell M, Sun C, Tang MLK, Koplin JJ, Mavoa S. (2021). Backyard benefits? A cross-sectional study of yard size and greenness and children's physical activity and outdoor play. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1402. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11475-4

Peters RL, Barret DY, Soriano VX, McWilliam V, Lowe AJ, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Koplin JJ, Perrett KP. (2021). No cashew allergy in infants introduced to cashew by age 1 year. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 147(1), 383 - 384. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.07.003

Peters RL, Kay T, McWilliam VL, Lodge CJ, Ponsonby A-L, Dharmage SC, Lowe AJ, Koplin JJ. (2021). The Interplay Between Eczema and Breastfeeding Practices May Hide Breastfeeding's Protective Effect on Childhood Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 9(2), 862 - 871.e5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.006

Soriano V, Peters R, Ponsonby A-L, Perrett K, Dharmage S, Gurrin L, Koplin J. (2021). Has the Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Changed Following Earlier Introduction of Peanut? The EarlyNuts Study Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 147(2), ab236. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.009

Suaini NHA, Loo EX-L, Peters RL, Yap GC, Allen KJ, Van Bever H, Martino DJ, Goh AEN, Dharmage SC, Colega MT, Chong MFF, Ponsonby A-L, Tan KH, Tang MLK, Godfrey KM, Lee BW, Shek LP-C, Koplin JJ, Tham EH. (2021). Children of Asian ethnicity in Australia have higher risk of food allergy and early-onset eczema than those in Singapore. Allergy, 76(10), 3171 - 3182. DOI: 10.1111/all.14823


Liao Z, Lamb KE, Burgner D, Ranganathan S, Miller JE, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Lowe AJ, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Allen KJ, Wake M, Peters RL. (2020). No obvious impact of caesarean delivery on childhood allergic outcomes: findings from Australian cohorts. Arch Dis Child, 105(7), 664 - 670. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317485

McWilliam V, Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Smart J, Perrett K, Tey D, Robinson M, Taranto M, Koplin JJ, Gurrin LC, HealthNuts , SchoolNuts investigators . (2020). Skin Prick Test Predictive Values for the Outcome of Cashew Challenges in Children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 8(1), 141 - 148.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.05.057

Neeland MR, Andorf S, Manohar M, Dunham D, Lyu S-C, Dang TD, Peters RL, Perrett KP, Tang MLK, Saffery R, Koplin JJ, Nadeau KC. (2020). Mass cytometry reveals cellular fingerprint associated with IgE+ peanut tolerance and allergy in early life. Nat Commun, 11(1), 1091. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-14919-4

Wang Y, Peters RL, Perrett KP, McWilliam VL, Tang MLK, Lowe AJ, Ponsonby A-L, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ, Koplin JJ, HealthNuts investigators . (2020). Community-Based Adverse Food Reactions and Anaphylaxis in Children with IgE-Mediated Food Allergy at Age 6 Years: A Population-Based Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 8(10), 3515 - 3524. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.07.008


Dang TD, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Ponsonby A-L, Martino DJ, Neeland M, Tang MLK, Allen KJ, HealthNuts study . (2019). Egg allergen specific IgE diversity predicts resolution of egg allergy in the population cohort HealthNuts. Allergy, 74(2), 318 - 326. DOI: 10.1111/all.13572

McWilliam V, Peters R, Tang MLK, Dharmage S, Ponsonby A-L, Gurrin L, Perrett K, Koplin J, Allen KJ, HealthNuts investigators . (2019). Patterns of tree nut sensitization and allergy in the first 6 years of life in a population-based cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 143(2), 644 - 650.e5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.07.038

Neeland MR, Martino DJ, Dang TD, Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Grishin A, Dharmage SC, Tang ML, Sampson HA, Saffery R, Allen KJ. (2019). B-cell phenotype and function in infants with egg allergy. Allergy, 74(5), 1022 - 1025. DOI: 10.1111/all.13707

Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Tang MLK, McWilliam VL, Gurrin LC, Neeland MR, Lowe AJ, Ponsonby A-L, Allen KJ. (2019). Early Exposure to Cow's Milk Protein Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Cow's Milk Allergic Outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 7(2), 462 - 470.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.08.038

Sasaki M, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Lowe AJ, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ. (2019). Food allergy at 1 year predicts persistence of eczema at 6 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 7(6), 2078 - 2081.e6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.02.019

Suaini NHA, Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Sasaki M, Ellis JA, Martino DJ, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Ponsonby A-L, Gurrin LC, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ, HealthNuts study group . (2019). Children with East Asian-Born Parents Have an Increased Risk of Allergy but May Not Have More Asthma in Early Childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 7(2), 539 - 547.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.07.042


Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Allen KJ, Lowe AJ, Lodge CJ, Tang MLK, Wake M, Ponsonby A-L, Erbas B, Abramson MJ, Hill D, Gurrin LC, Dharmage SC. (2018). The Prevalence of Food Sensitization Appears Not to Have Changed between 2 Melbourne Cohorts of High-Risk Infants Recruited 15 Years Apart. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 6(2), 440 - 448.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.11.018

Vermeulen EM, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Peters RL, McWilliam V, Ponsonby A-L, Dwyer T, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Allen KJ, HealthNuts investigators . (2018). Food Allergy Is an Important Risk Factor for Childhood Asthma, Irrespective of Whether It Resolves. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 6(4), 1336 - 1341.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.10.019


Ashley SE, Tan H-TT, Peters R, Allen KJ, Vuillermin P, Dharmage SC, Tang MLK, Koplin J, Lowe A, Ponsonby A-L, Molloy J, Matheson MC, Saffery R, Ellis JA, Martino D, HealthNuts team . (2017). Genetic variation at the Th2 immune gene IL13 is associated with IgE-mediated paediatric food allergy. Clin Exp Allergy, 47(8), 1032 - 1037. DOI: 10.1111/cea.12942

Chan JCK, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Wake M, Tang MLK, Prescott S, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study . (2017). Food Challenge and Community-Reported Reaction Profiles in Food-Allergic Children Aged 1 and 4 Years: A Population-Based Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 5(2), 398 - 409.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2016.12.021

Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Gurrin LC, Dharmage SC, Wake M, Ponsonby A-L, Tang MLK, Lowe AJ, Matheson M, Dwyer T, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study . (2017). The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 140(1), 145 - 153.e8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.019


Beck C, Koplin J, Dharmage S, Wake M, Gurrin L, McWilliam V, Tang M, Sun C, Foskey R, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Investigators . (2016). Persistent Food Allergy and Food Allergy Coexistent with Eczema Is Associated with Reduced Growth in the First 4 Years of Life. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 4(2), 248 - 56.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.08.009

Goldsmith AJ, Koplin JJ, Lowe AJ, Tang ML, Matheson MC, Robinson M, Peters R, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ. (2016). Formula and breast feeding in infant food allergy: A population-based study. J Paediatr Child Health, 52(4), 377 - 384. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13109

Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Dharmage SC, Gurrin L, Tang MLK, Ponsonby A-L, Matheson M, Togias A, Lack G, Allen KJ, HealthNuts study investigators . (2016). Understanding the feasibility and implications of implementing early peanut introduction for prevention of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 138(4), 1131 - 1141.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.04.011

Koplin JJ, Suaini NHA, Vuillermin P, Ellis JA, Panjari M, Ponsonby A-L, Peters RL, Matheson MC, Martino D, Dang T, Osborne NJ, Martin P, Lowe A, Gurrin LC, Tang MLK, Wake M, Dwyer T, Hopper J, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study . (2016). Polymorphisms affecting vitamin D-binding protein modify the relationship between serum vitamin D (25[OH]D3) and food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 137(2), 500 - 506.e4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.051


Hua S, Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Tang ML, Wake M, Foskey R, Heine RG, HealthNuts Study Investigators . (2015). Medical intervention in parent-reported infant gastro-oesophageal reflux: A population-based study. J Paediatr Child Health, 51(5), 515 - 523. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12760

Koplin JJ, Wake M, Dharmage SC, Matheson M, Tang MLK, Gurrin LC, Dwyer T, Peters RL, Prescott S, Ponsonby A-L, Lowe AJ, Allen KJ, HealthNuts study group . (2015). Cohort Profile: The HealthNuts Study: Population prevalence and environmental/genetic predictors of food allergy. Int J Epidemiol, 44(4), 1161 - 1171. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyu261

Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Koplin JJ, Dang T, Tilbrook KP, Lowe A, Tang MLK, Gurrin LC, HealthNuts Study . (2015). Natural history of peanut allergy and predictors of resolution in the first 4 years of life: A population-based assessment. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 135(5), 1257-66.e1-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.01.002

Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Lodge CJ, Koplin JJ, Ponsonby A-L, Wake M, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Matheson MC, Gurrin LC, HealthNuts study . (2015). Differential factors associated with challenge-proven food allergy phenotypes in a population cohort of infants: a latent class analysis. Clin Exp Allergy, 45(5), 953 - 963. DOI: 10.1111/cea.12478


Koplin JJ, Peters RL, Ponsonby A-L, Gurrin LC, Hill D, Tang MLK, Dharmage SC, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study Group . (2014). Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents. Allergy, 69(12), 1639 - 1647. DOI: 10.1111/all.12487

Peters RL, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Koplin JJ, Ponsonby A-L, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Tey D, Robinson M, Hill D, Czech H, Thiele L, Osborne NJ, Allen KJ, HealthNuts study . (2014). The natural history and clinical predictors of egg allergy in the first 2 years of life: a prospective, population-based cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 133(2), 485 - 491. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.032

Suaini NHA, Koplin JJ, Ellis JA, Peters RL, Ponsonby A-L, Dharmage SC, Matheson MC, Wake M, Panjari M, Tan H-TT, Martin PE, Pezic A, Lowe AJ, Martino D, Gurrin LC, Vuillermin PJ, Tang MLK, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study Investigators . (2014). Environmental and genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in 12-month-old infants. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 144 Pt B, 445 - 454. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.08.018

Tey D, Allen KJ, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Tang MLK, Gurrin LC, Ponsonby A-L, Lowe AJ, Wake M, Dharmage SC, HealthNuts study investigators . (2014). Population response to change in infant feeding guidelines for allergy prevention. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 133(2), 476 - 484. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.019


Koplin JJ, Allen KJ, Gurrin LC, Peters RL, Lowe AJ, Tang MLK, Dharmage SC, HealthNuts Study Team . (2013). The impact of family history of allergy on risk of food allergy: a population-based study of infants. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 10(11), 5364 - 5377. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10115364

Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Tang MLK, Koplin JJ, Ponsonby A-L, Lowe AJ, Hill D, Gurrin LC, HealthNuts Study . (2013). Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 132(4), 874 - 880. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.05.038

Study Contacts
Principal investigator/s Rachel Peters
Study Contact

Ph: +61 3 8341 6266
Address: HealthNuts Study
Population Allergy,
Murdoch Children's Research Institute,
Royal Children’s Hospital
Flemington Road, Parkville
Victoria 3052 Australia